The EPA website contains sections about how to reduce the risks associated with Urban Heat Islands. These include Cooling Strategies; What You Can Do; What Communities are Doing. 

Cooling Strategies & What you Can Do includes: 1) Increasing tree and vegetation cover. 2) Growing plants, shrubs or grasses on rooftops. 3) Installing or painting  a roof that will reflect heat from a building. 4) Using road and sidewalk paving materials that are more reflective. 5) Using urban development plans that utilized the existing natural vegetation environment.

What Communities are Doing includes a database of 167 different State and Community projects which are using many of the EPA Cooling Strategies to help reduce the anthroprogenic warming effect within each UHI.

The Soil Science Society of America provides detailed information about counteracting the UHI effect with green roof technology. They reference a green roof study that was done in the Baltimore-Washington DC metropolitan area. They also provide information about green roof projects that are being implemented in the city of Berkely, California. The Berkely green roof projects are being guided by the City Office of Energy & Sustainable Development.

The Heat Island Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, is dedicated to research related to the UHI effect. The Heat Island Group is involved with a wide range of UHI projects, which included Los Angeles UHI Monitoring, Cool Walls, Advanced Surfaces, California Roof Albedo, Cool Cars, Cool Communities and Next-Generation Materials.

New York City started a project in 2009 called NYC °CoolRoofs, an NYC Service initiative, which is a collaboration between the NYC Department of Buildings and NYC Service to promote and facilitate the cooling of New York City's rooftops. Working with non-profits, City agencies, and building owners, NYC °CoolRoofs engages volunteers in applying white, reflective surfaces to rooftops, which reduces cooling costs and cuts energy usage. The coating used on the rooftops is highly reflective and quickly releases heat, which results in reduced absorption of solar heat leading to cooler buildings. Temperatures within the building can be reduced by up to 30 percent, cutting cooling-related electricity costs in warmer months. By regulating rooftop temperatures, the coating also helps to extend the life of rooftops as well as cooling equipment. In addition to the immediate benefits for the coated buildings, white rooftops reduce temperature in the surrounding areas and combat the Urban Heat Island Effect-the warming effect experienced in cities when paved areas prevent evaporative cooling processes, and dark surfaces, such as asphalt, absorb solar heat, increasing average ambient temperatures by up to five degrees. Coating all eligible rooftops in New York City could mitigate the Urban Heat Island effect in New York by up to one degree.

Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences published an innovative Urban Heat Island analysis methodology in the June 2017 "Science China Earth Sciences" publication. The researchers have developed an EcoCity computer model to help planners design cites to rein in the Urban Heat Island effect. The EcoCity model is based on the multidisciplinary integration of urban geography, urban climatology and urban ecology. The model is closely linked to "spatial location theory" in urban geography, "radiation and energy balance" in urban climatology, and provided the parameterization program for regulating land-cover components and thermal environment in urban planning and management application

China EcoCity Model


North Dakota winter temperature presentation:


Total Solar Irradiance Chart & Sunspot Map